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地址:桂林市甑皮岩路26号桂林甑皮岩国家考古遗址公园(凯风路与万福路交汇处之西北角)
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洞穴家园
甑皮岩遗址位于桂林市南郊象山区独山南麓,为一石灰岩孤峰,因山体外形似当地居民蒸锅之盖,故方言称“甑皮岩”。甑皮岩洞穴属脚洞型洞穴,洞口朝向西南,方向240°,发育于泥亮晶粒屑灰岩中。

    甑皮岩遗址位于桂林市南郊象山区独山南麓,为一石灰岩孤峰,因山体外形似当地居民蒸锅之盖,故方言称“甑皮岩”。甑皮岩洞穴属脚洞型洞穴,洞口朝向西南,方向240°,发育于泥亮晶粒屑灰岩中。甑皮岩洞穴系统由主洞、矮洞、及水洞三部分组成,遗址主要分布在主洞中,主洞进深19.4米,面阔最宽处约15米,高0~4米。
遗址1965年发现,1973年第一次考古发掘,2001年进行第二次考古发掘。遗址分A、B、C、D四个区,两次主要发掘区域集中在B区和D区,遗址堆积最厚处3.3米。
甑皮岩遗址文化堆积深厚,文化内涵丰富。依据地层叠压关系及出土文化遗物的特征,可将甑皮岩遗址分为史前和宋代两大时期。其中,史前文化遗存可分为五期,年代在距今12000年到距今7000年。遗址史前时期发掘出土的器物主要为石器、骨器、蚌器、陶器等,遗迹现象有墓葬、用火遗迹和石器加工场。宋代文化遗迹包括居住面、墓葬,遗物有陶瓷碎片。
Zengpiyan Cave

Opening on the southwestern side of Du (Solitary) Hill in the southern suburbs of Guilin, Zengpiyan Cave is approximately 9 km south of the City Centre and about 300 m west of the Guilin-Yangshuo road. Du Hill lies between two other isolated hills - Xiangren to the north and Dafang to the south. These three limestone hills are situated in a small basin, with small plains and other limestone hills to the west, and the Li River to the east.

Zengpiyan cave contains a main chamber, an inner small chamber and a passage opening to an underground stream. The main chamber is 19.4 m long, up to 15 m wide and 4 m high, with a floor area of about 220 m2.

The cave was discovered during survey in 1965, and a 3 m2 trial trench was excavated.  Further excavations took place from 1973 to 1975, when a total of 80 m2 was excavated, followed by initial publication of data in the late 1970s. At that time, Zengpiyan clearly represented a new kind of archaeological assemblage in South China, but for various reasons many scholarly issues have still not been solved. In addition, the water level of the underground stream rises every year in the wet season, causing continuing erosion and damage to the remaining cultural deposits.

In order to preserve the site and obtain more archaeological data, another excavation was jointly conducted from April to August 2001 by the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science; the archaeological team of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; Zengpiyan Archaeological Museum; and the archaeological team of Guilin City. A total of 10.26 m2 was excavated.

The multidisciplinary research team in 2001 included archaeologists, zoo-archaeologists, archaeobotanists, and physical anthropologists. Sherds from the basal Phase I, dated to 12,000 years ago, are among the earliest ceramics in China. Zengpiyan contains five archaeological phases that illustrate a sequence of ceramic typology and pottery manufacture dated between 12,000 and 7000 years ago.

The Zengpiyan research is very important, not only for understanding the characteristics of local prehistoric cultures, but also for investigating cultural exchanges between prehistoric South China and Southeast Asia. In addition, the Zengpiyan assemblage enables us to study prehistoric environmental change and the dynamic relationship between nature and human activity. 

 

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